Philodendron venosum (Willd. ex Schult. & Schult.f.) Croat
  • Aroideana 9: 157 (1986) 

Notes: Distribution: Trinidad-Tobago to Venezuela

General Description

Appressed-climbing epiphyte on tree trunks or buttress roots to at least 5 m above ground, sometimes sprawling over rocks, shrubs, or soil, the flowering shoots pendent and upturned. Internodes (2.1-) 2.3-12.1 cm long, 0.4-0.9 (-1.1+) cm wide, green to gray-green, gray or tan-gray, semiglossy to glossy, sometimes transversely fissured, narrowly flattened to flat-grooved on one side, drying yellowish tan to yellowish brown or brown, coarsely sulcate; roots few to (usually) abundant at distal nodes, to ca. 1.5 (-2.0) mm in diameter. LEAVES: Petiole (10.6-) 14.0-29.4 (-34.0) cm long, P/L=(0.48-) 0.53-0.87 (-1.06), glossy to very glossy adaxially, sheathed (81-) 87-98 (-99)%, the sheath thin and broadly spreading (at least in distal half ), to ca. 2.1 cm across, scarious-margined and ± strongly resolute (at least on one side), the free portion prolonged (sometimes ± asymmetrically) by ca. 0.5-4.0 mm; unsheathed portion of petiole (0.2-) 0.3-2.6 (-3.0) cm long, slightly concave to canaliculate above, rounded abaxially, mostly unhinged to strongly adulate marginally. Lamina 19.3-44.9 cm long, 6.5-17.7 (-19.7) cm wide, L/W=(1.63-) 1.96-3.48 (-3.79+), IQI= (0-) 1-6, firmly membranaceous or thinly coriaceous to sub- coriaceous, generally somewhat papyraceous or pergamentaceous, matte, silky- matte, velvety, satiny, "shimmering'' or (less frequently) semiglossy to glossy above, matte to (less frequently) semiglossy or glossy below, weakly bicolored, lanceolate or oblanceolate to narrowly ovate or narrowly to broadly elliptical or (rarely) ± oblong (generally widest near to below the middle), abruptly to gradually short- to long- acuminate apically (the acumen 0.6-2.6 cm long and sometimes aristate by 2-3 mm), cuneate to rounded or truncate (rarely shallowly subcordate, sometimes inequilaterally so) basally, plane to weakly undulate marginally; midrib narrowly sulcate and sometimes glossy (in contrast to lamina) above, convex and often paler below; primary lateral veins (6-) 7-12 per side, 0.2-5.2 cm apart, sunken above, convex below, often with distinct interprimaries; minor veins obscurely to distinctly visible below; abaxial laminar surface drying virtually smooth to (usually) uniformly and weakly to densely granular or low-granular (with the granules sometimes concentrated along the veins), rarely subalveolate, with reticulate veins evident to conspicuous, especially peripherally; white stitching absent or scattered to abundant along the resin canals; resin canals obscure to evident or conspicuous between the lateral veins; adaxial surface uniformly and moderately to densely granular or low-granular (or the granules sometimes concentrated along the veins), often subalveolate as well, with reticulate veins obscure to evident peripherally; white stitching absent to rare, or (occasionally) abundant throughout; resin canals not or obscurely evident. INFLORESCENCES solitary or paired; cataphylls often present, (2.9-) 5.6-13.7 cm long, 0.3-0.9cm wide, narrowly lanceolate to lance-oblong, 2-keeled; peduncle (1.65-) 1.95-6.25 cm long (to 7.4+ cm post-anthesis), P/S=(0.24-) 0.43-0.73, somewhat triangular in section, pale-green-streaked or with elevated striate lines; spathe at anthesis (6.8-) 7.5-12.1 (-14.5) cm long, (1.2-) 1.6-3.6 (-4.0) cm wide, coriaceous, externally glossy, green or bright green below, paler green to whitish distally, internally pale green, inflated-ellipsoidal at anthesis with the tube scarcely demarcated; spathe drying uniformly and moderately to densely granular externally, with rare to scattered short-white stitching (sometimes dense at margins) and sometimes conspicuous (at least proximally) resin canals, internally virtually smooth to (usually) uniformly and moderately to densely granular or low-granular, occasionally with scattered short-white stitching, with longitudinal secretory striations in basal 1/2-7/10 (-5/6); acumen of spathe 0.5-1.9 cm long. Stipe of spadix (0.15-) 0.20-0.90 (-1.20) cm long; spadix (4.7-) 5.6-9.4 (-10.5) cm long, the fertile male portion (0.6-) 0.8-1.1 (-1.3) cm wide, white, apparently persistent to fruit; sterile male zone ca. 0.2-0.6 cm long; fertile female portion of spadix (1.5-) 1.8-2.8 (-3.1) cm long (to 4.6+ cm in fruit), F/5=0.26-0.37 (-0.41), (0.6-) 0.7-1.2 (-1.3) cm wide (to 2,0+ cm in fruit), light green; fertile male flowers (0.8-) 1.0-1.5 mm long, 0.6-1.5 (-1.8) mm wide, irregularly polygonal, columnar; sterile male flowers (1.0-) 1.5-1.8 (-2.0) mm long, 0.7-1.6 (-3.0) mm wide, broadly obconic to anvil-shaped, drying dark-colored distally; female flowers 1.4-2.0 (-2.3) mm long, (0.6-) 0.7-1.3 (-1.7) mm wide, the stylar canals 3-4. INFRUCTESCENCE: Ripe fruits "golden-yellow, 3-4 mm tall, regularly angular, apices very obtuse'' (Bunting 3219). Seeds 0.7-0.9 mm long, 0.30-0.35 mm wide, "buff'' (Bunting 3219), straight or slightly curved (Steyernark & Rabe 96073) , finely striate with the striae minutely cancellate, drying tannish brown and weakly glossy (perhaps slightly immature) .


Premontane Moist Forest, Premontane Wet Forest, Lower Montane Moist Forest, and Lower Montane Wet Forest life zones.


Spottily distributed in the coastal ranges of Venezuela to Trinidad (Northern Range) and Tobago, and possibly Barbados.

Distribution Map

  • Native distribution
Found in
  • Southern America Caribbean Trinidad-Tobago
  • Northern South America Venezuela


  • 1 Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
  • 2 Govaerts, R. & Frodin, D.G. (2002). World Checklist and Bibliography of Araceae (and Acoraceae): 1-560. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • 3 Grayum, M.Howard Revision of Philodendron subgenus Pteromischum (Araceae) for Pacific and Caribbean Tropical America. Systematic Botany Monographs. 47, (1996).

 Information From

CATE Araceae
Haigh, A., Clark, B., Reynolds, L., Mayo, S.J., Croat, T.B., Lay, L., Boyce, P.C., Mora, M., Bogner, J., Sellaro, M., Wong, S.Y., Kostelac, C., Grayum, M.H., Keating, R.C., Ruckert, G., Naylor, M.F. and Hay, A., CATE Araceae, 14 Dec 2011 . 17 Dec 2011.
  • A All Rights Reserved
eMonocot. (2010, 1st November). Retrieved Wednesday, 8th February, 2012, from
  • B Content licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License
World Checklist of Selected Plant Families
WCSP 2014. 'World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. Facilitated by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet; Retrieved 2011 onwards
  • C See You may use data on these Terms and Conditions and on further condition that: The data is not used for commercial purposes; You may copy and retain data solely for scholarly, educational or research purposes; You may not publish our data, except for small extracts provided for illustrative purposes and duly acknowledged; You acknowledge the source of the data by the words "With the permission of the Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew" in a position which is reasonably prominent in view of your use of the data; Any other use of data or any other content from this website may only be made with our prior written agreement.