Philodendron tripartitum (Jacq.) Schott
  • Wiener Z. Kunst 3: 780 (1829) 


Notes: Distribution: Mexico to Trop. America

General Description

Hemiepiphytic; appressed-climbing, stem often several meters long, sap watery, very aromatic-scented; internodes moderately elongate except near the apex, semiglossy, drying coarsely and irregularly ribbed (the ribs usually acute), 3--14 cm long, 1--2 cm diam. (to 3.5 cm diam. in Colombia), green to dark green to gray-green, soon drying light brown, epidermis sometimes loose and papery, roots usually 3--6 per node, usually less than 20 cm long, drying brown, less than 3 mm diam., semiglossy, sparsely scaly; cataphylls thin, (10)18--33 cm long, usually unribbed, sometimes sharply 1-ribbed, greenish, sometimes tinged reddish, deciduous intact. LEAVES erect-spreading to spreading; petioles 20--61 cm long, 6--15 mm diam., terete to subterete, moderately spongy, sometimes obtusely somewhat flattened, sometimes with an obtuse medial rib, dark green, surface glossy to weakly glossy; blades deeply 3-lobed almost to the base or rarely trisect, ca. as broad as long in outline, thinly coriaceous, semiglossy, moderately bicolorous, acuminate at apex, lower surface sometimes heavily tinged purplish or reddish; typically rather dissimilar, median segment usually oblanceolate, sometimes nearly elliptic, rarely oblong to linear, 15--45 cm long, (4.5)7--14(19) cm wide, 1.9--7.8 times longer than wide (averaging 4.3 times longer than wide), (0.9)1.5(1.7) times longer than lateral segments;) the lateral segments conspicuously inequilateral, arcuate-spreading toward apex, (12)18--35 cm long, 1.3--15 cm wide, the inner margin always much narrower than the outer margin and weakly confluent with medial lobe, usually to 1 cm., rarely to 2 cm, the outer margin 1.5--5 times wider than the inner margin where the difference is most severe; midrib broadly convex, concolorous above, convex to round-raised, darker below; basal veins lacking; primary lateral veins (4)6--10(12) per side, departing midrib to a 25º angle on narrow blades or to 90º angle on broader blades, weakly curved on narrow blades or markedly curved on broader blades to the margins, sunken and usually concolorous above, convex and darker than surface below; minor veins fine and conspicuously visible, arising from both the midrib and primary lateral veins. INFLORESCENCES usually solitary, sometimes 2--3 per axil; peduncle 3--16 cm long, 6--13 cm diam., medium green, moderately recurved with reddish ring around the apex; spathe (8)13--21 cm long, 1.2--4 cm diam., weakly constricted above the tube, to 2.5 cm diam. at constriction, usually medium green to yellow-green, rarely creamy white, with dark purple dots (most to 3 mm circumference) heavily so on tube, less so on blade throughout, white to creamy white or greenish white within, cucullate at apex, convolute in lower 2/3 of tube at base, margins whitish or colorless, recurled at anthesis; spathe blade glossy, smooth outside, (the opening 7.5--8.5 cm long, 3.4--5.2 cm wide), creamy white, glossy; resin canals intermittent, orange, appearing medially and extending into spathe tube inside; spathe tube oblong, glossy outside, 5 cm long, 3 cm diam., maroon, deep red, or purplish-violet inside; spadix sessile or shortly stipitate (to 2 mm); clavate, more or less erect, 12.3 cm long, broadest above the middle, weakly constricted between sterile and fertile portions; pistillate portion greenish white to pale yellowish green, 2.5--4.5(6.2) cm long, 1--1.8 cm diam. throughout; staminate portion 7.5--8.5 cm long; fertile staminate portion creamy white, 1.2 cm diam. at base, 1.3 cm diam. at middle, 1 cm diam. ca. 1 cm from apex, broadest in the middle, usually narrower than the pistillate and sterile portions; sterile staminate portion usually broader than the pistillate portion, creamy white, drying yellowish, 1.3 mm diam.; pistils 1.7--2.5(3.4) mm long, 0.6--1.1(2.3) mm diam.; ovary 6--8(10)-locular, 0.8--2.3 mm long, 1.1--2.3 mm diam., with sub-basal placentation; locules 0.8--1.1(2.3) mm long, 0.2--0.4(0.7) mm diam.; ovule sac 0.7--0.9(1.2) mm long; ovules 1--2 per locule, contained within a translucent and gelatinous matrix, 0.4--0.6 mm long, longer than funicle; funicle 0.2--0.4 mm long, (can be pulled free to base), style 0.4--0.8 mm long, 1--1.4(2.5) mm diam., usually similar to style type D (rarely B or E); style apex more or less rounded; stigma subdiscoid, truncate, 0.7 mm diam., 0.2--0.3 mm high, covering center of style apex, inserted on style boss; the androecium truncate, prismatic, margins usually irregularly 5-sided, 1.4 mm long, 2.2 mm diam. at apex; thecae oblong, 0.5 mm wide, more or less parallel to one another; sterile staminate flowers blunt, prismatic, irregularly 4--6-sided, 1.9 mm long, 1.5-2 mm wide. Berries whitish, irregularly angular, 4 mm long, 2--2.7 mm diam.; seeds usually 6--8 per berry, cylindrical, 1.5 mm long, sticky. JUVENILE plants with blades maroon below.

Habitat

In Mexico, Philodendron tripartitum occurs in Selva Alta Perennifolia and the transition forest to Bosque Caducifolia. In Costa Rica and Panama, it occurs in Tropical moist forest to Premontane wet forest, Tropical wet forest and Premontane rain forest. In Colombia, it is known from Tropical wet forest and Tropical rain forest.

Distribution

Ranges from Mexico to Ecuador. In Central America, this species ranges along the Caribbean slope in Mexico (Veracruz to Tabasco) and throughout Middle America but occurs on both slopes in Costa Rica and Panama thence along the Pacific slope into lowland Antioquia and Chocó Departments, Colombia.

Distribution Map

 
  • Native distribution
Specimens
Found in
  • Northern America Mexico Mexico Gulf
  • Mexico Southeast
  • Mexico Southwest
  • Southern America Brazil Brazil North
  • Caribbean Jamaica
  • Central America Belize
  • Costa Rica
  • El Salvador
  • Guatemala
  • Honduras
  • Nicaragua
  • Panamá
  • Northern South America Venezuela
  • Western South America Colombia
  • Ecuador

  Bibliography

  • 1 Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies. Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
  • 2 Nelson Sutherland, C.H. (2008). Catálogo de las plantes vasculares de Honduras. Espermatofitas: 1-1576. SERNA/Guaymuras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.
  • 3 Hammel, B.E. & al. (2003). Manual de Plantas de Costa Rica 2: 1-694. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
  • 4 Govaerts, R. & Frodin, D.G. (2002). World Checklist and Bibliography of Araceae (and Acoraceae): 1-560. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • 5 Stevens, W.D., Ulloa U., C., Pool, A. & Montiel, O.M. (2001). Flora de Nicaragua. Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 85: i-xlii, 1-2666.
  • 6 Croat, T.Bernard A revision of Philodendron subgenus Philodendron (Araceae) for Mexico and Central America Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 84, (1997).

 Information From

CATE Araceae
http://araceae.e-monocot.org
Haigh, A., Clark, B., Reynolds, L., Mayo, S.J., Croat, T.B., Lay, L., Boyce, P.C., Mora, M., Bogner, J., Sellaro, M., Wong, S.Y., Kostelac, C., Grayum, M.H., Keating, R.C., Ruckert, G., Naylor, M.F. and Hay, A., CATE Araceae, 14 Dec 2011 . 17 Dec 2011.
  • A All Rights Reserved
Global Biodiversity Information Facility
http://data.gbif.org
  • B All Rights Reserved
eMonocot
http://e-monocot.org
eMonocot. (2010, 1st November). Retrieved Wednesday, 8th February, 2012, from http://e-monocot.org.
  • C Content licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License
World Checklist of Selected Plant Families
http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
WCSP 2014. 'World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. Facilitated by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet; http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/ Retrieved 2011 onwards
  • D See http://kew.org/about-kew/website-information/legal-notices/index.htm You may use data on these Terms and Conditions and on further condition that: The data is not used for commercial purposes; You may copy and retain data solely for scholarly, educational or research purposes; You may not publish our data, except for small extracts provided for illustrative purposes and duly acknowledged; You acknowledge the source of the data by the words "With the permission of the Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew" in a position which is reasonably prominent in view of your use of the data; Any other use of data or any other content from this website may only be made with our prior written agreement.