Philodendron strictum G.S.Bunting
  • Phytologia 60: 328 (1986) 

Notes: Distribution: Costa Rica to NW. Venezuela and Ecuador

General Description

Terrestrial or hemiepiphytic; stems stout; inter-nodes 3-4 cm long, 2.5 - 5 cm diam., usually broader than long, sometimes longer than broad, dark green to gray-green, semiglossy; roots moderately few, drying dark brown, semiglossy, sparsely scaly; cataphylls 25-40 cm long, unribbed to bluntly 1-ribbed, rarely bluntly 2-ribbed or sharply 1-ribbed, pale green, soft, turning yellowish and persisting semi-intact at upper nodes. LEAVES: Petioles (47-56)63-105 cm long, subterete, obtusely D-shaped with faint medial rib, obtusely flattened adaxially, light green to gray-green, weakly glossy, sparsely dark lineate, drying usually light yellow-brown, sometimes blackened; sheath inconspicuous; blades ovate-cordate, conspicuously bicolorous, acuminate at apex (the acumen sometimes in-rolled), cordate, sometimes sagittate at base, (24)38-66(74) cm long, (16)27-52 cm wide (1-1.3 times longer than wide), (0.5 - 1 times the petiole length), broadest near the middle; upper surface dark green, semiglossy, lower surface much paler, whitish, matte; anterior lobe (19-28)31-51(57-62) cm long, (19)27-48(53-56) cm wide, (1.7-2.8(3.3) times longer than posterior lobes); posterior lobes 12-23 cm long, 8.6 - 26 cm wide, obtuse to broadly rounded; sinus usually spathulate, sometimes hippocrepiform; midrib flat, paler than surface above, convex and darker below; basal veins 7 - 10 per side, with 0 - 2 free to base, part of the remainder coalesced 1 - 12.4 cm; posterior rib sometimes not naked, often obscurely naked for 1.5 cm, rarely 3.5 cm; primary lateral veins 5 - 11 per side, departing midrib at a 50 - 65¡ angle, deeply sunken above, convex and darker below, usually prominently down turned before meeting midrib; minor veins numerous, fine, indistinct below, arising from both the midrib and primary lateral veins. INFLORESCENCES erect-spreading, 1-4 or more per axil; peduncle (6)11 - 15 cm long, 1-1.5 cm diam., with thin, yellowish epidermis; spathe 13 - 17.7 cm long, 2.5-4.3 cm diam. (0.9 - 2.3 times longer than peduncle), moderately constricted above the lube (very slick inside), 2.7 cm diam. at constriction; spathe blade light green to whitish, tinged purple-violet (B & K red-purple 3/2.5), sparsely short-white-lineate medially outside, margins paler, (opening elliptic in face view, 10.7 cm long, 4.8 cm wide), light green to whitish and suffused red inside, drying dark to reddish brown; spathe tube green to purple-violet (B & K red-purple 3/2.5) outside, 4 cm diam., maroon or violet-purple inside; spadix sessile; bluntly pointed at apex, 9.2-16 cm long; pistillate portion weakly tapered toward apex, 2.1 - 3.9 cm long in front, (1.6)3 - 3.3 cm long in back, 0.6 - 1.4 cm diam. at apex, 1 - 1.5 cm diam. at middle, 1.3 - 1.5 cm wide at base; staminate portion 8.9 - 11.9 cm long; fertile staminate portion somewhat ellipsoid, sometimes ovate to tapered, 1.1 cm diam. at base, 1.2 - 1.3 cm diam. at middle, 8 - 9 mm diam. ca. 1 cm from apex, broadest in the middle or sometimes just above the base, narrower than the pistillate portion, as broad as the sterile portion; sterile staminate portion narrower than the pistillate portion, 1-1.4 cm diam.; pistils (1.1)2.7-3.4(5.4) mm long, 1.3-1.6 mm diam.; ovary (4)5-6-locular, 1.8 mm long, 1.3-1.7 mm diam., with axile placentation; locules 1.8 mm long, 0.6 mm diam.; ovules 20-28 per locule, 2-seriate, 0.2-0.4 mm long, longer than funicle; funicle 0.1 mm long, adnate to lower part of partition, style 0.7 - 0.9 mm long, 1.3 - 1.6 mm diam., similar to style type B; style apex flat; stigma subdiscoid, truncate, 1.1 - 1.3 mm diam., 0.3-0.5 mm high, covering entire style apex; the androecium prismatic, truncate, oblong, irregularly 4 - 6-sided at apex 0.9 mm long, 1.6 - 2 mm diam. at apex; thecae oblong, ± parallel to one another, nearly contiguous; sterile staminate flowers blunt, prismatic, irregularly 4 - 6-sided, 1.8 - 2.9 mm long, 0.9-2.4 mm wide. INFRUCTESCENCE 2 cm wide; seeds pale yellowish, 0.9 mm long, 0.3 mm diam.


In Costa Rica, this species occurs in Lower Montane rain. Premontane rain, and Tropical wet forest life zones. In Venezuela, it is known only from the state of Tachira in the south-western part of the country, at 1000 to 1250 m elevation in Premontane wet forest.


Ranges from Costa Rica to western Panama, Venezuela (Tachira), Colombia (Antioquia, Choco), and Ecuador (Carchi, Esrneraldas). In Costa Rica, this species occurs at 850 to 1525 m, and in Panama at 680 to 1665 m elevation in Lower Montane rain. Premontane rain, and Tropical wet forest life zones. In Colombia, this species has been collected at 100 to 150 m in Choco and Valle Departments, and in Antioquia at 1560 m. In Venezuela, it is known only from the state of Tachira in the south-western part of the country, at 1000 to 1250 m elevation in Premontane wet. forest. It was reported erroneously (owing to a typographical error) by Croat and Lambert (1986) from 110 to 1330 m.

Distribution Map

  • Native distribution
Found in
  • Southern America Central America Costa Rica
  • Panamá
  • Northern South America Venezuela
  • Western South America Colombia
  • Ecuador


  • 1 Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
  • 2 Hammel, B.E. & al. (2003). Manual de Plantas de Costa Rica 2: 1-694. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
  • 3 Govaerts, R. & Frodin, D.G. (2002). World Checklist and Bibliography of Araceae (and Acoraceae): 1-560. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • 4 Croat, T.Bernard A revision of Philodendron subgenus Philodendron (Araceae) for Mexico and Central America Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 84, (1997).

 Information From

CATE Araceae
Haigh, A., Clark, B., Reynolds, L., Mayo, S.J., Croat, T.B., Lay, L., Boyce, P.C., Mora, M., Bogner, J., Sellaro, M., Wong, S.Y., Kostelac, C., Grayum, M.H., Keating, R.C., Ruckert, G., Naylor, M.F. and Hay, A., CATE Araceae, 14 Dec 2011 . 17 Dec 2011.
  • A All Rights Reserved
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eMonocot. (2010, 1st November). Retrieved Wednesday, 8th February, 2012, from
  • C Content licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License
World Checklist of Selected Plant Families
WCSP 2014. 'World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. Facilitated by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet; Retrieved 2011 onwards
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