Philodendron straminicaule Croat
  • Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 84: 532 (1997) 


Notes: Distribution: Costa Rica to Colombia

General Description

Hemiepiphytic; stem appressed-climbing, leaf scars conspicuous, 1 - 1.6 cm long, 1.2 - 1.7 cm wide; internodes glossy to semiglossy, ± brittle, somewhat scurfy, 1-5(12) cm long, 2-3.5 mm diam., longer than broad, dark green, soon gray- green, finally light tan, drying straw-colored, sometimes with a narrow ring of yellow-brown periderm at the nodes; epidermis transversely fissured in part, sometimes deeply fissured and cracking free on drying; roots blunt, to 30 cm or longer, 4 mm diam., yellow-green, weakly glossy (fresh), drying reddish brown with minute scales in age; cataphylls somewhat spongy, to (17)20-35 cm long, variously ribbed, sometimes D-shaped or unribbed, more frequently bluntly to sharply 1- or 2-ribbed (sometimes unribbed in Coclé), emarginate at apex, pale green to pale yellowish to whitish, margins clear, sometimes closely dark green short-lineate, sometimes moderately red-purple-spotted (more so at base) throughout, ribs darker, drying greenish or brownish, deciduous, persisting intact. LEAVES: Petioles (27)32-59 cm long, 5-12(17) mm diam., subterete, ± spongy, medium green, obtusely flattened adaxially, rounded adaxially, surface semiglossy, faintly dark lineate; blades triangular-ovate-cordate, subcoriaceous, semiglossy, bicolorous, long acuminate at apex, cordate at base, (27)33 - 55 cm long, (11)19.7-31 cm wide (1.3-2.3 times longer than wide), (0.7 - 1.5 times longer than petiole), margins hyaline, lower surface drying green to yellow-green, densely glaucous with secretory ducts visible; anterior lobe (18.7)27-38.6(47) cm long, 17.6-27.6 cm wide (2.4-4.5 times longer than posterior lobes), margins straight to moderately concave; posterior lobes directed toward base, rarely reflexed-spreading, sometimes overlapping when posterior lobes are held somewhat upward al an angle to the midrib, (7)8.5 - 15.5 cm long, 7.5 - 13 cm wide, obtuse to rounded; sinus hippocrepiform, rarely closed, 2.6-14 cm deep; midrib flat to broadly rounded, paler than surface above, convex to narrowly rounded, paler than surface below; basal veins 4 - 6(7) per side, with 0 - 1 free to base, the remainder coalesced 1.2 - 5 cm, 2 coalesced 3.5 - 7 cm; posterior rib naked 0.5 - 1.5 cm; primary lateral veins 3-6 per side, departing midrib at a 45-65º angle, acutely ascending then weakly arcuate to straight to the margins, ± obscure, sunken and concolorous above, convex, darker than surface or paler than surface below; interprimary veins raised and darker than surface below; minor veins moderately distinct, fine, darker than surface, arising from both the midrib and primary lateral veins, drying minutely granular, prominulous and alternating with secretory ducts. INFLORESCENCES erect, usually 2 - 3 (sometimes to 5) per axil; peduncle (4.5)5.6 - 18 cm long, terete, pale to medium green, faintly short-lineate to densely speckled; spathe 7 - 18.5 cm long (0.9 - 1.8 times longer than peduncle), moderately constricted above the tube; spathe blade pale green to white on both surfaces, acuminate at apex; spathe tube dark green, finely pale lineate, glossy outside, 4 - 8.5 cm long, 1.5÷3 cm diam., reddish violet to maroon or magenta inside; spadix sessile; erect at anthesis, 7.6 - 13 cm long; pistillate portion 2.2-3.7(6.5) cm long, 1-1.4(2) cm diam. at middle, tapered slightly toward both ends; staminate portion clavate, 5.2 - 7.7 cm long; fertile staminate portion white, 8÷10 mm diam. at base, 1-1.5 cm diam. at middle, 4-8 mm diam. ca. 1 cm from apex, broadest at the middle, abruptly tapered toward apex, weakly constricted just above the sterile portion; sterile staminate portion usually broader than the pistillate portion at anthesis, 8-15 mm diam., the lowermost flowers sometimes drying whitened; pistils 1.1-1.7(3.4) mm long, 7-9(17) mm diam.; ovary 4-6(10)-locular, 0.5-0.7(2.2) mm long, 0.7-0.9(1.7) mm diam., with sub-basal placentation; locules 0.5 - 0.7(2.1) mm long, 0.2 - 0.3(0.6) mm diam.; ovule sac 0.5-0.7 mm long; ovules 1 per locule, contained within sticky, transparent, gelatinous ovule sac, 0.2 - 0.3 mm long, as long as funicle; funicle 0.2-0.3 mm long (can be pulled free to base), style 0.5-0.8(1) mm long, 0.6-0.7(1.7) mm diam., drying doughnut-shaped, similar to style type C; style funnel shallow with a small ring of stylar canals near the base; stigma subdiscoid, truncate, 0.4-0.5(0.8) mm diam., 0.1-0.3 mm high, covering almost entire style apex, with 1 - 5 depressions when dried, papillate, sessile, matte; the androecium truncate, prismatic, margins ± 4 - 5-sided, 0.6 - 1 mm long, 1.1 - 1.3 mm diam. al apex; thecae oblong, 0.4 - 0.5 mm wide, ± parallel to one another and nearly contiguous to contiguous; pollen ± spheroidal, <0.1 mm long, <0.1 mm diam., scarce; sterile staminate flowers irregularly 4 - 6-sided, blunt, prismatic, 1 - 1.3 mm long, 0.9 - 1.2 mm wide. INFRUCTESCENCE with berries pale green (immature), greenish white to lavender.

Habitat

Generally in Tropical Lower Montane rain forest and Premontane rain forest, rarely in Tropical wet forest.

Distribution

Known only from the Cordillera de Guanacaste in northwest Costa Rica and in western Panama, from Chiriqui and Bocas del Toro to Coclé Province.

Distribution Map

 
  • Native distribution
Specimens
Found in
  • Southern America Central America Costa Rica
  • Panamá
  • Western South America Colombia

  Bibliography

  • 1 Hammel, B.E. & al. (2003). Manual de Plantas de Costa Rica 2: 1-694. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
  • 2 Govaerts, R. & Frodin, D.G. (2002). World Checklist and Bibliography of Araceae (and Acoraceae): 1-560. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • 3 Croat, T.Bernard A revision of Philodendron subgenus Philodendron (Araceae) for Mexico and Central America Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 84, (1997).

 Information From

CATE Araceae
http://araceae.e-monocot.org
Haigh, A., Clark, B., Reynolds, L., Mayo, S.J., Croat, T.B., Lay, L., Boyce, P.C., Mora, M., Bogner, J., Sellaro, M., Wong, S.Y., Kostelac, C., Grayum, M.H., Keating, R.C., Ruckert, G., Naylor, M.F. and Hay, A., CATE Araceae, 14 Dec 2011 . 17 Dec 2011.
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Global Biodiversity Information Facility
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eMonocot. (2010, 1st November). Retrieved Wednesday, 8th February, 2012, from http://e-monocot.org.
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World Checklist of Selected Plant Families
http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
WCSP 2014. 'World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. Facilitated by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet; http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/ Retrieved 2011 onwards
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