Philodendron solimoesense A.C.Sm.
  • J. Arnold Arbor. 20: 289 (1939) 


Notes: Distribution: S. Trop. America

General Description

STEM: climbing or hanging with erect tip in epiphytic plants, erect to prostrate in terrestrial plants, 1-6 m long, 4 -7(-15) cm diam.; adventitious roots hanging down to ground, 1.5 cm diam., tuberculate-aculeate with corky, grey, lenticellate bark; internodes 0.1 - 0.3 cm long; prophyll scars 0.1 - 1(-1.5) cm long, paler and longer than internodes; intravaginal squamules usually numerous, occasionally lacking, 2-7 mm long, 1-2 mm wide at base, triangular-acuminate, usually ± flattened, patent, whitish, crowded together in dense rows on internodes, wearing off on older part of stem; foliage leaf scars transverse-elliptic to suborbicular, 2.5-3.5 cm long, 2.5-3 cm wide, whitish-grey. LEAF: prophyll c. 25 cm long, green or purple, deciduous; petiole 50-100(-114) cm long, apex 0.6-1.3 cm diam., often rugulose, adaxially flattened or with broad central ridge, margins ± sharply angled, sheath 6-13 cm long; leaf blade sagittate, margins repand, overall length 50-94 cm, overall width (23.5-)27-48 cm, upper surface dark green, lower surface paler, dull or glossy on both surfaces; anterior division 30-67 cm long, (23.5-)27-40 (-48) cm wide, apex obliquely acute-acuminate, more rarely subacute to obtuse and cuspidate, primary lateral veins (3-)4-5(-6) per side, arising at angle of (50-)55-90°, slightly paler than blade on upper surface, concolorous on lower surface, cross veinlets between finest parallel veins sometimes distinct in dried material; posterior divisions retrorse, sometimes slightly extrorse, 17-27(-30)cm long, 0.25-0.33(-0.42) x overall blade length, 12-24 cm wide, basal ribs denuded for (1.7-) 3.5 - 5.5( -7.5) cm, tip usually acute, more rarely subacute or obtuse, rounded at extremity, primary acroscopic veins (1 —)2 — 3( — 4), very rarely up to 8, primary basiscopic veins (0-) 1-7, weaker, basiscopic lamina area variable, usually moderately developed. INFLORESCENCE: peduncle (2-)4.5-12(-13.5) cm long, l.5-2(-3) cm diam. at apex, tapering to base, green; spathe 13-31 cm long, 2.5-4.5(-5.5) cm diam. at middle, larger in fruit, ± cylindric, outer surface glossy light green, becoming yellow with ripening of berries, with punctate, non-pigmented extrafloral nectaries especially near apex, inner surface creamy white throughout, decurrent for 2.5-4 cm; spadix 10.5-28 cm long, fertile male zone 3.5-7.5( -10) cm long, 1.3 - 2.2 cm diam., ellipsoid, more rarely subcylindric or clavate, acute, sterile male zone 5-8.5(-10) cm long, (0.9-)l.2-2.6 (-2 9) cm diam., subcylindric, tapering slightly to apex, female zone (2.5-) 3.5-6.5(-7) cm long, 1.4-2.4 cm diam. FLOWERS: stamens 3-5.5 mm long, 0.5-0.9 mm diam. at apex; staminodes 3-5.5 mm long, (0.7 -)1 - 1.5 mm diam. at apex, at base of zone longer stouter apically with convex apex, becoming less clavate, more prismatic and apically truncate towards apex of zone; gynoecium (3-)4-6 mm long, ovary cylindric or slightly tapering to base, 4.5-5 mm diam., locules 26-34 (-47) per ovary, ovules 4-5 per locule, inserted from base to apex, evenly spaced, style body as wide as or slightly wider than ovary, lacking raphide cells, compitum shallow, not penetrating ovary, forming a circular channel, style crown weakly lobed, tissue abundantly tanniniferous, with abundant druses, central dome equalling style crown, broad and massive, with deep (sometimes shallow) axial canal which may descend almost to base of ovary axis, and is conspicuous in fruit and post-anthesis flowers, stylar canals entering locules subapically, stigma (3-) 3.5-4(-5.5) mm broad, contiguous with neighbouring stigmas, tannin hairs numerous. INFRUCTESCENCE: ripe infructescence ca. 12 cm long, 4-4.5 cm diam.; berry white, orange or red (fide different collectors) with sweet fermenting odour, compressed-subcylindric, 1-1.3 cm long, 1-1.3 cm diam., style crown persistent as circular channel around axial cavity; seed ovoid-ellipsoid, 1.7-2 mm long, 0.8-1.2 mm diam., raphe and funicle arillate, enlarged with oily contents but not enclosing seed, testa not sarcotestate.

Habitat

Hemi-epiphyte, often high-climbing, in terra firme or flooded blackwater (igapó) forests or riverine and lacustrine gallery forests, also terrestrial and then erect or prostrate on sandy soils.

Distribution

French Guiana, Guyana, Surinam, Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, West-central and North Brazil.

Distribution Map

 
  • Native distribution
Specimens
Found in
  • Southern America Brazil Brazil North
  • Brazil West-Central
  • Northern South America French Guiana
  • Guyana
  • Suriname
  • Venezuela
  • Western South America Colombia
  • Ecuador
  • Peru

  Bibliography

  • 1 Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
  • 2 Govaerts, R. & Frodin, D.G. (2002). World Checklist and Bibliography of Araceae (and Acoraceae): 1-560. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • 3 Gardens, K.""Royal Bot World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. (2008).
  • 4 Mayo, S.Joseph A revision of Philodendron subgenus Meconostigma (Araceae). Kew Bull. 46 (4), (1991).

 Information From

CATE Araceae
http://araceae.e-monocot.org
Haigh, A., Clark, B., Reynolds, L., Mayo, S.J., Croat, T.B., Lay, L., Boyce, P.C., Mora, M., Bogner, J., Sellaro, M., Wong, S.Y., Kostelac, C., Grayum, M.H., Keating, R.C., Ruckert, G., Naylor, M.F. and Hay, A., CATE Araceae, 14 Dec 2011 . 17 Dec 2011.
  • A All Rights Reserved
Global Biodiversity Information Facility
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eMonocot
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eMonocot. (2010, 1st November). Retrieved Wednesday, 8th February, 2012, from http://e-monocot.org.
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World Checklist of Selected Plant Families
http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
WCSP 2014. 'World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. Facilitated by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet; http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/ Retrieved 2011 onwards
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