Philodendron rojasianum Standl. & Steyerm.
  • Publ. Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Bot. Ser. 23: 3 (1943) 

Notes: Distribution: Mexico (Chiapas) to Costa Rica

General Description

Rangy, branching, epiphytic vine, climbing to at least 2 m on trunks (or at least the younger plants sprawling on slopes or cliffs), the terminal portions recurved. Internodes 0.4-15.5 cm long, 0.3-0.9 cm wide, green to gray-green or brown, drying yellowish brown to gray-brown, coarsely sulcate; roots occasional at distal nodes of younger stems, to ca. 1.5 mm in diameter and few when present. LEAVES: Petiole 10.0-18.0 cm long, P/L=(0.61-) 0.67-0.86 (-1.06), semiglossy, extensively sheathed, the sheath horizontally spreading, the free portion prolonged by (0.1-) 0.6-1.6 (-2.5) cm; unsheathed portion of petiole (0.2-) 0.5-1.4 (-1.9) cm long, D-shaped, canaliculate above, the margins obtuse. Lamina (11.6-) 15.1-18.8 (-20.5) cm long, (3.7-) 4.8-10.2 (-13.6) cm wide, L/W=(1.40-) 1.82-2.68 (-3.27), IQI=(1-) 4-7, membranaceous to chartaceous, matte and somewhat velvety above, matte below, slightly bicolored ("silvery green beneath"; Steyermark 37448), broadly or narrowly ovate to (less frequently) lanceolate, narrowly elliptical or (rarely) slightly obovate (virtually always broadest below the middle), ± abruptly to (less frequently) gradually short-acuminate apically [the acumen ca. 0.6-1.8 (-2.1) cm long], broadly cuneate to (more usually) truncate or rounded to subcordate (the sinus to ca. 0.7 cm deep) basally; midrib sunken above and slightly paler than surface, convex below; primary lateral veins 9-15 (-17+) per side, 0.2-1.5 (-3.2) cm apart, sunken above, convex below; minor veins distinctly visible below; abaxial laminar surface drying sparsely granular (especially toward the midrib), virtually always densely and uniformly but minutely farinose-granular along the principal veins, with the reticulate veins prominent especially in the distal half; white stitching rare and obscure or (usually) not visible; resin canals usually obscurely visible; adaxial surface virtually smooth or sparsely to moderately granular, with the reticulate veins evident in distal half; white stitching not evident or (usually) occasional to moderately frequent; resin canals not visible. INFLORESCENCES solitary; cataphylls absent; peduncle 1.3-2.2 cm long, P/S=ca. 0.14-0. 23; spathe at anthesis 12.7-16.0 (-17.2) cm long (to 18.1+ cm in fruit), (1.6-) 2.0-2.9 cm wide (to 3.0+ cm in fruit), externally "dark green near middle, paler at apex, white-striate at base, pale green inside" {Croat 41223); spathe drying virtually smooth to rugulose and obscurely to (usually) moderately granular with occasional to moderately abundant short, white lineations and obvious resin canals externally, internally moderately and uniformly granular, with longitudinal secretory striations extending nearly to apex; acumen of spathe comparatively long and stout, 1.8-3.5 cm long. Stipe of spadix 0.4-1.7 cm long; spadix 9.1-9.6 cm long, the fertile male portion 0.90-1.35 cm wide, white (Croat & Hannon 63762); sterile male zone 0.7-0.8 cm long; fertile female portion of spadix 1.7-3.0 cm long (to 6.6+ cm in fruit), F/S=ca. 0.19-0.31, 1.0-2.0 cm wide (to 2.6+ cm in fruit), pale green {Croat & Harmon 63762); fertile male flowers (1.1-) 2.0-2.1 mm long, (0.5-) 0.8-1.0 (-1.4) mm wide, irregularly polygonal, columnar to obturbinate; sterile male flowers 2.3-3.0 mm long, (0.7-) 0.9-1.3 (-2.3) mm wide, irregularly polygonal;-female flowers 2.5-3.3 mm long, 0.6-1.5 mm wide, the stylar canals 3-4. INFRUCTESCENCES: Ripe fruits not described. Seeds (1.4-) 1.6-1.8 mm long, 0.25-0.30 (-0.40) mm wide, red-purple (Madison 7320), straight and usually somewhat spindled to slightly curved, finely striate with the striae minutely cancellate, relatively long and narrow, drying dark brown and semiglossy.


The Costa Rican station lies in the Premontane Rain Forest life zone.


Known from three disjunct regions: northern Chiapas (Mexico), Guatemala, and central Costa Rica.

Distribution Map

  • Native distribution
Found in
  • Northern America Mexico Mexico Southeast
  • Southern America Central America Costa Rica
  • Guatemala


  • 1 Hammel, B.E. & al. (2003). Manual de Plantas de Costa Rica 2: 1-694. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
  • 2 Govaerts, R. & Frodin, D.G. (2002). World Checklist and Bibliography of Araceae (and Acoraceae): 1-560. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • 3 Stevens, W.D., Ulloa U., C., Pool, A. & Montiel, O.M. (2001). Flora de Nicaragua. Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 85: i-xlii, 1-2666.
  • 4 Grayum, M.Howard Revision of Philodendron subgenus Pteromischum (Araceae) for Pacific and Caribbean Tropical America. Systematic Botany Monographs. 47, (1996).

 Information From

CATE Araceae
Haigh, A., Clark, B., Reynolds, L., Mayo, S.J., Croat, T.B., Lay, L., Boyce, P.C., Mora, M., Bogner, J., Sellaro, M., Wong, S.Y., Kostelac, C., Grayum, M.H., Keating, R.C., Ruckert, G., Naylor, M.F. and Hay, A., CATE Araceae, 14 Dec 2011 . 17 Dec 2011.
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eMonocot. (2010, 1st November). Retrieved Wednesday, 8th February, 2012, from
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World Checklist of Selected Plant Families
WCSP 2014. 'World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. Facilitated by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet; Retrieved 2011 onwards
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