Philodendron rayanum Croat & Grayum
  • Syst. Bot. Monogr. 47: 131 (1996) 

Notes: Distribution: Costa Rica to Panama

General Description

Epiphytic (or epilithic) vine climbing to at least 4 m, the branches divergent from the host tree. Internodes 0.2-6.9 (-15.3) cm long, 0.4-0.7 (-0.9) cm wide, gray-green, semi-glossy, moderately pustulate, drying yellowish (becoming cafe-au- lait) and coarsely sulcate; roots occasionally present at distal nodes, to ca. 1.5 mm in diameter. LEAVES: Petiole 5.8-17.0 cm long, P/L=0.32-0.59, sheathed 81-94 (-97)%, the sheath spreading-erect to involute, adnate or prolonged distally to ca. 1.5 mm; unsheathed portion of petiole 0.4-2.5 cm long, flattened above. Lamina (10.7-) 14.2-40.4 (-42.3) cm long, (3.0-) 4.4-14.4 (-22.7) cm wide, L/W=(1.52-) 1.83-3.10 (-7.85, juvenile leaves), IQI=(0-) 1-7, thinly coriaceous, semiglossy to glossy on both surfaces ("not glossy on either side," McPherson 9019), weakly bicolored, narrowly to broadly lanceolate or oblanceolate to elliptical, oblong or ovate (broadest below to above the middle), abruptly short- to long-acuminate apically [the acumen (0.2-) 0.7-1.1 (-2.0) cm long], narrowly cuneate to subtruncate, rounded or subcordate basally; midrib flat to sunken above, convex below; primary lateral veins 9-16 per side, 0.4-4.5 cm apart, prominently sunken above, convex below, with interprimaries usually evident; minor veins obscurely visible above, visible below and slightly darker; abaxial laminar surface with reticulate venation very prominent throughout and enclosing granular areolae; white stitching very rare to regular; resin canals may be visible; adaxial surface moderately and evenly granular, with reticulate veins prominent or visible only toward the margins; white stitching not evident or (rarely) occasional; resin canals not visible (or an occasional one visible). INFLORESCENCES solitary or occasionally (Mcpherson 9019) paired; cataphylls regularly 1 per inflorescence, 5.8-14.5 cm long, 0.5-1.8 cm wide, red to purple- violet, prominently undulate, appearing rounded dorsally; peduncle 1.3-3.5 cm long, P/S=0.16-0.33; spathe at anthesis 9.1-15.9 cm long, 2.0-3.2 (-3.4) cm wide, externally green below, paler distally, densely short-lineolate, reddish along the margin, internally mostly whitish, with red in the tube(?); spathe drying densely and evenly granular externally, with some whitish lenticels, internally moderately and evenly granular, with longitudinal secretory striations ca. 3/5-7/10 to apex; acumen of spathe 0.6-2.2 cm long. Stipe of spadix 0.2-0.8 cm long; spadix 7.8-12.5 (-13.7) cm long, the fertile male portion 0.7-1.2 cm wide, white; sterile male zone 0.45-0.90 cm long; female portion of spadix 2.1-4.1 cm long (to 5.7+ cm in fruit), F/S=(0.23-) 0.26-0.33, 0.8-1.2 cm wide (to 3.7+ cm in fruit), green or yellowish; fertile male flowers 1.6-2.0 mm long, 0.6-1.7 mm wide, irregularly polygonal, columnar; sterile male flowers 1.9-2.2 mm long, 0.6-1.6 mm wide, clavate; female flowers 1.9-2.3 mm long, 0.6-1.1 mm wide, the stylar canals 3-4. INFRUCTESCENCES: Ripe fruits described as "pink" (Maas & Dressler 1606) or "yellow-orange'' (Grayum et al. 9875). Seeds 0.7-1.2 mm long, 0.20-0.25 mm wide, straight to slightly or (rarely) strongly curved, very finely striate with the striae cancellate, drying pale brown and semiglossy. Figs. 66-67.


Mostly from Tropical Wet Forest and Premontane Rain Forest life zones, but ranging sparingly into Tropical Moist Forest, Premontane Moist Forest, and Premontane Wet Forest.


Spottily distributed from north-central Costa Rica to extreme eastern Panama.

Distribution Map

  • Native distribution
Found in
  • Southern America Central America Costa Rica
  • Panamá


  • 1 Hammel, B.E. & al. (2003). Manual de Plantas de Costa Rica 2: 1-694. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
  • 2 Govaerts, R. & Frodin, D.G. (2002). World Checklist and Bibliography of Araceae (and Acoraceae): 1-560. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • 3 Grayum, M.Howard Revision of Philodendron subgenus Pteromischum (Araceae) for Pacific and Caribbean Tropical America. Systematic Botany Monographs. 47, (1996).

 Information From

CATE Araceae
Haigh, A., Clark, B., Reynolds, L., Mayo, S.J., Croat, T.B., Lay, L., Boyce, P.C., Mora, M., Bogner, J., Sellaro, M., Wong, S.Y., Kostelac, C., Grayum, M.H., Keating, R.C., Ruckert, G., Naylor, M.F. and Hay, A., CATE Araceae, 14 Dec 2011 . 17 Dec 2011.
  • A All Rights Reserved
Global Biodiversity Information Facility
  • B All Rights Reserved
eMonocot. (2010, 1st November). Retrieved Wednesday, 8th February, 2012, from
  • C Content licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License
World Checklist of Selected Plant Families
WCSP 2014. 'World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. Facilitated by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet; Retrieved 2011 onwards
  • D See You may use data on these Terms and Conditions and on further condition that: The data is not used for commercial purposes; You may copy and retain data solely for scholarly, educational or research purposes; You may not publish our data, except for small extracts provided for illustrative purposes and duly acknowledged; You acknowledge the source of the data by the words "With the permission of the Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew" in a position which is reasonably prominent in view of your use of the data; Any other use of data or any other content from this website may only be made with our prior written agreement.