Philodendron minarum Engl.
  • C.F.P.von Martius & auct. suc. (eds.), Fl. Bras. 3(2): 166 (1878) 

Notes: Distribution: Brazil (Minas Gerais, São Paulo)

General Description

Hemi-epiphytic, sometimes epilithic vine. Stem: greyish-brown, internodes 0.5-2, intravaginal squamules evident, vinaceous, 1-1.2 x 1 mm, triangular. Prophyll 21 - 25 x 2.5 - 3 cm, narrowly lanceolate, pale to green with vinaceous base and margin. LEAVES: Petiole 19-36 cm long, green sometimes with vinaceous extrafloral nectaries. Leaf blade 27-41 x 17-23 cm, ovate to ovate-triangular or widely ovate, apex acute, base cordate or subcordate or subsagittate, distinctly paler on lower surface, subcoriaceus; anterior division 19-26 x 17-23 cm, primary lateral veins 3-6, midrib and primary lateral veins bright cream, posterior divisions 10-14 x 8-12 cm, acroscopic veins 2-3 per side, basioscopic veins 1-3 per side; basal veins 5-6 per side, none or rarely 1 free to base; posterior rib naked for 2-3.2 cm. INFLORESCENCE: 1 per floral sympodium; peduncle 8.5 cm long. Spathe 10-16.5 x 2-2.5 cm, ovate, weakly constricted, green with vinaceous grooves outside and cream with vinaceous base inside. Spadix 10-12 cm long, male zone 6.3-7 cm long, cream, male sterile zone 1-1.3 cm long, female zone 4.5-4.8 cm, long, pale green. Flowers: stamens 0.6-0.8 x 0.4-0.6 mm; intermediate staminodes 1-1.2 x 0.4-0.5 mm; gynoecium 1.2-1.5 x 0.8-1.2 mm, ovoid, ovary 4-6-locular, ovules 4-8 per locule, placentation sub-basal. Berries 3.8-4.5 x 3-3.8 mm, oblong. Seeds: 0.8-1.5 x 0.5-0.8 mm, ellipsoid. Fig.1. D

Hemiepiphyte, epiphyte, epilith to scandent herb. Internodes 1-12 x 0.8-2 cm. Prophyll deciduous, 9-10 x l.2-l.3 cm. Petioles slightly canaliculate adaxially, 23-63 x 0.8-1.2 cm. Leaf blade sagittate, ovate in outline, 28-41 x 25-29 cm, chartaceous, adaxial surface dark green, paler adaxially, anterior division 19- 26 x 25-29 cm, apex acute to acuminate, secondary nerves 5-6 per side with intersecondary nerves visible, all arising at an angle of 65-80°, posterior divisions 8-15 x 18-25 cm, denuded portion of the basal rib 3- 5 cm, acroscopic nelves 2-3, basiscopic 2- 5. Inflorescences 1 per leaf axill, peduncle 8-13 x 0.8-1.5 cm; spathe white inside, green outside, 11-24 cm long; spadix 13-19 x 2-5.5 cm, fertile male portion cylindric, round at apex, 3.5-5 x 1.5-1.8 cm, sterile male portion 5.5-7 x l.5-2 cm, female portion adnate up to 1/3 of its length, 4-5.5 x 1.3-3 cm. Male flowers with prismatic stamens 3.5-5 X 0.7-1 mm, staminodes clavate, 3-7 x 1-1.5 mm, gynoecium 3-6 x 3-4 mm, 6-9-locular, locules 2-3-ovuled. Berry not seen.

Diagnostic Description

It is distinguished from P. cordatum mainly by the colour of the midrib and primary lateral veins, green petioles, greenish-yellow color of the spathe after anthesis and size of the flowers, which are much smaller in P. minarum.


Epilithic or hemi-epiphytic in tropical forest, forest fragments or riparian vegetation.


Minas Gerais, Southeastern Brazil.

Philodendron minarum is a common species in Central and Eastern Minas Gerais State, also occurring in Sao Paulo State. It is usually a hemiepiphyte, but could be observed growing directly on limestone rocks in Central Minas Gerais.


Least Concern (LC). This species is commonly found in ‘campo rupestre’ localities, being protected within the Parque Estadual do Ibitipoca and APA da Serra do Caraça. It occurs on rock outcrops in ‘campo rupestre’ and this habitat is not under particular threat at the moment.

Distribution Map

  • Native distribution
Found in
  • Southern America Brazil Brazil Southeast


  • 1 Gonçalves, E.G. (2010). The Araceae from the limestone outcrops in Central-Western Brazil. Aroideana 33: 143-160.
  • 2 Sakuragui, C.M., Mayo, S.J. & Zappi, D.C. (2005). Taxonomic revision of Brazilian species of Philodendron. Kew Bulletin 60: 465-513.
  • 3 Govaerts, R. & Frodin, D.G. (2002). World Checklist and Bibliography of Araceae (and Acoraceae): 1-560. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • 4 Sakuragui, C.M., Mayo, S.Joseph & Zappi, D.C. Taxonomic revision of Brazilian species of Philodendron section Macrobelium Kew Bull. 60, (2005).
  • 5 Goncalves, E.G. The Araceae from the Limestone Outcrops in Central-Western Brazil. Aroideana; Journal of the International Aroid Society 33, 160 (2010).

 Information From

CATE Araceae
Haigh, A., Clark, B., Reynolds, L., Mayo, S.J., Croat, T.B., Lay, L., Boyce, P.C., Mora, M., Bogner, J., Sellaro, M., Wong, S.Y., Kostelac, C., Grayum, M.H., Keating, R.C., Ruckert, G., Naylor, M.F. and Hay, A., CATE Araceae, 14 Dec 2011 . 17 Dec 2011.
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eMonocot. (2010, 1st November). Retrieved Wednesday, 8th February, 2012, from
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World Checklist of Selected Plant Families
WCSP 2014. 'World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. Facilitated by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet; Retrieved 2011 onwards
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