Philodendron maximum K.Krause
  • H.G.A.Engler, Pflanzenr., IV, 23Db: 49 (1913) 

Notes: Distribution: Brazil (Acre, Mato Grosso), Ecuador to Bolivia

General Description

Hemiepiphyte, at 3–3.5 m high; JUVENILE PLANTS with stems yellow-green, moderately glossy, sheath broadly spreading; blades weakly glossy, slightly bicolorous; ADULT PLANTS with internodes semi-glossy, short, 2–4 cm long, (2–)6–9 cm diam., olive-green, flattened-ridged on one side; cataphylls persisting semi-intact, 35–49 cm diam., D-shaped with 2 raised marginal ribs (ribs acute), semiglossy, medium green, pink or tinged red at base, one side 1.3 cm wide, the other side 7 cm wide, persisting intact, dark brown, deciduous. LEAVES with petioles sharply D-or U-shaped with erect edges, medium to dark green and semiglossy, smooth, purple-spotted near base with faint purple ring at apex, somewhat spongy, (42–)85–134 cm long, terete, medium green, semiglossy, weakly dark short-lineate; 2.5–2.7 cm d. in middle, 1.5–1.7 cm diam. at apex; subterete in cross-section; blades narrowly ovate-sagittate to ovate-triangular-sagittate, (67–)109-165 cm long, 30-82(100) cm wide, 1.8 times longer than wide, the widest part at or somewhat above petiole attachment, subcoriaceous, abruptly acuminate at apex, deeply lobed at base, dark green and moderately glossy above, moderately paler and matte below; margin markedly undulate and weakly sinuate; posterior lobes directed toward the base and often turned inward, sometimes overlapping, 18–44(–56) cm long, 21–38 cm wide; sinus narrowly obovate to mitered or closed (17–)24–32(–40) cm deep; midrib flattened and slightly paler at base, obtusely flat-raised toward apex above, narrowly rounded and moderately paler, sparsely short dark green-lineate below; the major veins drying darker than surface on both sides; primary lateral veins (4–)5–8(–9) pair, arising from midrib at 65° angle, broadly convex and slightly paler above, convex and moderately paler, sometimes tinged purplish below; minor veins fine, moderately distinct, densely, darker than surface (but drying usually paler than surface), arising from midrib as well as from the primary lateral veins; basal veins 6–7 pair, 2–3 acroscopic, 4–5 basioscopic, 1st pair free or almost free to the base, 2nd pair sometimes free, 3rd and 4th(5th) fused, 12-16(–20) cm, the posterior rib naked, (2.0–)3.5-5 cm. INFLORESCENCES erect, 2(–6) per axil; peduncle 27-37 cm long, 1.5–2 cm diam. midway, medium to dark green, semiglossy, obscurely dark short-lineate, spreading-pendent with spathe semi-erect; spathe 17–25 cm long, 2.5–4 cm diam., matte, medium to dark green, slightly paler on blade outside, heavily reddish in tube and changing abruptly to white on blade, opening to slightly below middle at anthesis; the resin canals dark and conspicuous in tube; spadix 16–23.5 cm long; female portion creamy white with stigmas turning dark brown, 4.5–9 cm long in front, 2.7–6.0 cm in rear, 2.5–2.7 cm diam. midway, 1.9–2.2 cm at apex; male part 11–14 cm long; the sterile portion 7 mm long, 1.8–2.0 cm diam., middle of fertile part 1.6–1.8 cm diam. INFRUCTESCENCE with berries with pungent scent, yellowish brown to yellow.


Tropical moist forest and Tropical wet forest life zones. The species frequently grows in the old leaf bases on palms, especially Attalea phalerata (“palmera de motocú”)


Ranges from Colombia (Vaupes) to Ecuador (Sucumbios, Orellana, Napo), Peru (Loreto, Pasco, Puno, San Martín, Ucayali), Brazil (Acre, Amazonas, Pará) and Bolivia (Beni, La Paz, Pando, Santa Cruz).

Distribution Map

  • Native distribution
Found in
  • Southern America Brazil Brazil North
  • Brazil West-Central
  • Western South America Bolivia
  • Ecuador


  • 1 Govaerts, R. & Frodin, D.G. (2002). World Checklist and Bibliography of Araceae (and Acoraceae): 1-560. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • 2 Croat, T.Bernard & Dodson, T. Personal Communication 1. (2007).

 Information From

CATE Araceae
Haigh, A., Clark, B., Reynolds, L., Mayo, S.J., Croat, T.B., Lay, L., Boyce, P.C., Mora, M., Bogner, J., Sellaro, M., Wong, S.Y., Kostelac, C., Grayum, M.H., Keating, R.C., Ruckert, G., Naylor, M.F. and Hay, A., CATE Araceae, 14 Dec 2011 . 17 Dec 2011.
  • A All Rights Reserved
Global Biodiversity Information Facility
  • B All Rights Reserved
eMonocot. (2010, 1st November). Retrieved Wednesday, 8th February, 2012, from
  • C Content licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License
World Checklist of Selected Plant Families
WCSP 2014. 'World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. Facilitated by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet; Retrieved 2011 onwards
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