Philodendron ichthyoderma Croat & Grayum
  • Syst. Bot. Monogr. 47: 147 (1996) 

Notes: Distribution: Panama to Colombia

General Description

Erect, terrestrial, subarborescent plants to ca. 2 m tall, often 2-5-branched from near base, the stems potentially elongating and reclining (and sometimes rooting at nodes), or clambering up trunks to at least 4 m high. Internodes 1.5- 29.0+ cm long, to 2 cm wide, becoming brownish, rough (transversely fissured) and scaling; roots very rare on distal internodes, when present 1-few, to ca. 1.25 mm wide. LEAVES: Petiole (7.5-) 9.2-22.5 cm long, P/L=(0.33-) 0.42-0.61 (-0.68), green- striate, heavily brownish roughened proximally, extensively sheathed, the sheath erect to involute with the margins brown-scarious, adnate distally or the free portion prolonged by 1.0-3.0 (-7,0) mm; unsheathed portion of petiole obsolete to ca. 0.7 (-1.2) cm long, canaliculate above. Lamina 26.4-47.1 cm long, (12.0-) 14.4- 24.0 (-29.5) cm wide, L/W= (1.48-) 1.55-2.58 (-2.85), IQI=(5-) 6-12 (-16), thinly coriaceous to subcoriaceous, weakly glossy to glossy above, matte to glossy below, concolorous to moderately bicolored, brownish green when dry, broadly ovate to elliptical or lanceolate (widest near middle), abruptly short-acuminate apically (the acumen to ca. 1.9 cm long), narrowly cuneate to rounded basally (often subcordulate at the petiole apex); midrib sunken above, narrowly convex and somewhat paler below; primary lateral veins 15-22 per side, 0.8-2.2 (-2.9) cm apart (interprimaries may be visible), sunken above, convex below; minor veins obscurely visible below, darker; abaxial laminar surface drying obscurely granular (often more conspicuously so toward midrib), with reticulate veins visible especially toward margins; whitish stitching usually visible; resin canals not evident to obscure or scattered; adaxial surface finely and uniformly granular-roughened; reticulate veins visible peripherally; white stitching not evident to obscure and scattered; resin canals sometimes visible. INFLORESCENCES solitary or rarely paired (Hammel 3510); cataphylls rarely present (Hammel 3510), ca. 10 cm long and at least 1.3 cm wide, somewhat broadly lanceolate; peduncle (2.4-) 2.8-5.1 (-6.8) cm long, P/S=(0.21-) 0.25-0.45 (-0.52), yellow-green, semiglossy, transversely fissured and coarsely short-white-lineate; spathe at anthesis 12.9-18.7 cm long, 2.3-2.9 cm wide, externally semiglossy, short-pale-striate, dark green below, greenish white distally and sometimes whitish spotted, internally uniformly pale green, lightly constricted ca. 1/3 from base; spathe drying densely and finely granular with irregular whitish stitching externally, internally virtually smooth to moderately and evenly granular with no stitching and longitudinal secretory striations to slightly over halfway to apex, abscising in fruit; acumen of spathe to ca. 1.4 cm long. Stipe of spadix 0.6-1.0 cm long; spadix (9.2-) 9.9-17.4 cm long, the fertile male portion 1.0-1.2 cm wide, cream-white ("pink,'' Killip 35112); sterile male zone 1.1-1.6 cm long; female portion of spadix 3.5-6.7 cm long (to 8.0+ cm in fruit), F/S=(0,29-) 0.30-0.46 (-0.53), 1.0-1.4 cm wide, pale greenish; fertile male flowers 1.6-1.8 mm long, 0.8- 1.0 mm wide, columnar, irregularly polygonal in section; sterile male flowers 2.0- 2.6 mm long, 0.8-1.6 mm wide, laterally compressed, concave apically; female flowers 1.3-1.8 mm long, 0.8-1.0 mm wide, the stylar canals generally 4. INFRUCTESCENCES: Ripe fruits described as "orange, smell[ing] of pepper'' (Knapp & Mallet 3013). Seeds 0.8-1.0 mm long, 0.2-0.3 mm wide, slightly curved to nearly straight, very finely striate with the striae minutely cancellate, drying glossy and brown.


Almost exclusively in Tropical Wet Forest and Premontane Rain Forest life zones in Panama, but also in Tropical Rain Forest and Premontane Wet Forest in Colombia.


Coclé Province, Panama, to Valle Department, Colombia, with disjunct populations on the eastern (Río Cauca) slope of the Colombian Cordillera Occidental (Risaralda Department) and the eastern (Río Magdalena) slope of the Cordillera Central (Antioquia Department).

Distribution Map

  • Native distribution
Found in
  • Southern America Central America Panamá
  • Western South America Colombia


  • 1 Govaerts, R. & Frodin, D.G. (2002). World Checklist and Bibliography of Araceae (and Acoraceae): 1-560. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • 2 Grayum, M.Howard Revision of Philodendron subgenus Pteromischum (Araceae) for Pacific and Caribbean Tropical America. Systematic Botany Monographs. 47, (1996).

 Information From

CATE Araceae
Haigh, A., Clark, B., Reynolds, L., Mayo, S.J., Croat, T.B., Lay, L., Boyce, P.C., Mora, M., Bogner, J., Sellaro, M., Wong, S.Y., Kostelac, C., Grayum, M.H., Keating, R.C., Ruckert, G., Naylor, M.F. and Hay, A., CATE Araceae, 14 Dec 2011 . 17 Dec 2011.
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eMonocot. (2010, 1st November). Retrieved Wednesday, 8th February, 2012, from
  • C Content licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License
World Checklist of Selected Plant Families
WCSP 2014. 'World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. Facilitated by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet; Retrieved 2011 onwards
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