Philodendron flumineum E.G.Gonç.
  • Kew Bull. 55: 175 (2000) 

Notes: Distribution: Brazil (Goiás, Brasília D.F.)

General Description

Creeping to scandent herb, rheophytic. Internodes green, 1-18 x 0.4-1 cm. Petioles 6-20 x 0.3-0.5 cm, sheath convolute to expanded, liguliform apex, nonsheathed portion of petiole 0.5-4.5 x 0.2-0.3 cm. Leaf blade entire, elliptic to oblanceolate, slightly oblique, 8.5-29 x 4-7.5 cm, subcoriaceous, dark green adaxially, paler abaxially, base acute to cuneate, rarely obtuse, apex long acuminate, rostrate; secondary nerves 4-6, poorly prominent, arising at an angle of 25-45°. Inflorescence solitary, peduncle 1-3 x 0.4-0.7 cm, spathe yellowish-green out-side, cream-colored internally, 9-16.5 cm long, 2-4 cm diam., acuminate; spadix 4.5-7.6 cm long, obliquely stipitate, stipe 1-2 cm at its longer side, fertile male portion terete, rounded at apex, 2.5-4.5 x 0.5-1 cm; sterile male portion 0.5 x 0.6-1 cm; female portion green, 1.6-2.5 x 1 cm. Female flowers 2-3-androus, stamens prismatic ca. 1 x 1 mm, staminodes prismatic to obpyramidal, ca. 2 x 1 mm, gynoecium subprismatic 2-3 x 1 mm, ovary 2-3-locular, locules 20-24-ovuled, funicles 2-3 x longer than the ovules. Berries cream-colored to greenish, 6-10 x 2-3 mm. Seeds long-elliptic, ca. 1 x 0.3 mm.

Creeping or scandent herb. Stem terete, slightly striate, internodes dark green, glossy, 1 - 18 x 0.4 - 1 cm; adventitious roots brown, c. 0.2 cm diam. LEAVES: Petiole green, 6-20 cm long; sheath partially closed, with left and right sides of unequal width, 1 - 5 mm wide, the base surrounding the stem, apex ligulate, acute to rotund, projecting for 1 - 7 mm; the non-sheathing part of the petiole 0.5 - 4.5 cm long. Lamina almost always oblique, elliptic, narrow-elliptic, oblong or oblanceolate, straight to subfalcate, 8.5 - 29 x 4 - 7.5 cm, base acute to cuneate, apex long- acuminate; subcoriaceous, adaxially dark green, abaxially paler; primary lateral veins 4 - 6, slightly prominent abaxially, arising at an angle of 25º- 45º. INFLORESCENCE solitary, terminal. Peduncle green, 1 - 3 x 0.4 - 0.7 cm; spathe 9 - 16.5 x 2 - 4 cm, outside greenish-yellow, inside cream, tip long-acuminate; spadix 4.5 - 7.6 x 0.7 - 1.2 cm, stipe 1 - 2 cm long on the longer side, 0.5 - 1 cm on the shorter side, fertile male zone 2.5 - 4.5 x 0.6 - 1 cm, rounded at apex, intermediate sterile male zone 0.5 x 0.6 - 1 cm; female zone green at anthesis, 1.6 - 2.5 x 0.7 - 1.2 x cm; male flower prismatic, 2 - 3-androus, c. 0.1 x 0.1 cm; staminodes prismatic, c. 0.1 x 0.1 cm; gynoecium subprismatic, c. 0.3 x 0.1 cm; locules 2 - 3, ovules 20 - 24 per locule, axially disposed up to the middle of the axis, funicles three times longer than the ovules, with trichomes at the base. INFRUCTESCENCE: Fruit a berry, cream or greenish, prismatic, 0.6 - 1.0 x 0.2 - 0.3 cm, most of the seeds situated at the berry apex. Seeds elongate, c. 1.0 x 0.3 mm (Fig. 1).

Diagnostic Description

Philodendron flumineum differs from the other species of the subgenus in its rheophytic habit, strongly acute leaf blade, apex of the sheath distant from the base of the leaf blade and funicles three times longer than the ovules.


A common plant along streams and rivers around Brasilia. It grows very close to the water, usually below the flood level. It seems to be the only true rheophyte known in the genus Philodendron .


Philodendron flumineum is one of the few (If not the only) rheophytic species of the genus and occurs only in Goias State (including the Federal District), always along medium to fast flowing rivers. In limestone outcrops, it occurs where permanent flowing water exists, growing appressed to the rocks.

Brazil: A common plant along streams and rivers around Brasilia.

Distribution Map

  • Native distribution
Found in
  • Southern America Brazil Brazil West-Central


  • 1 Gonçalves, E.G. (2010). The Araceae from the limestone outcrops in Central-Western Brazil. Aroideana 33: 143-160.
  • 2 Gomes Gonçalves, E. & Nadruz Coelho, M.A. (2009). Araceae. Flora dos estados de Goiás e Tocantins 39: 1-109. Universidade Federal de Goiás.
  • 3 Govaerts, R. & Frodin, D.G. (2002). World Checklist and Bibliography of Araceae (and Acoraceae): 1-560. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • 4 Goncalves, E.G. The Araceae from the Limestone Outcrops in Central-Western Brazil. Aroideana; Journal of the International Aroid Society 33, 160 (2010).
  • 5 Gonçalves, E.G. Two New Species of Philodendron (Araceae) from Central Brazil. Kew Bulletin 55, 175-180 (2000).

 Information From

CATE Araceae
Haigh, A., Clark, B., Reynolds, L., Mayo, S.J., Croat, T.B., Lay, L., Boyce, P.C., Mora, M., Bogner, J., Sellaro, M., Wong, S.Y., Kostelac, C., Grayum, M.H., Keating, R.C., Ruckert, G., Naylor, M.F. and Hay, A., CATE Araceae, 14 Dec 2011 . 17 Dec 2011.
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eMonocot. (2010, 1st November). Retrieved Wednesday, 8th February, 2012, from
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Sampled Red List Index for Plants
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World Checklist of Selected Plant Families
WCSP 2014. 'World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. Facilitated by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet; Retrieved 2011 onwards
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