Loxococcus H.Wendl. & Drude
  • Linnaea 39: 185 (1875) 

Notes: Distribution: Sri Lanka

General Description

Moderate, solitary, unarmed, pleonanthic, monoecious palm. Stem erect, rather slender, conspicuously ringed with leaf scars, sometimes slightly swollen at the base. Leaves stiff, pinnate, neatly abscising; sheaths forming a well-defined crownshaft, bearing sparse scales; petiole usually very short, adaxially channelled, abaxially rounded, sparsely scaly; rachis adaxially becoming angled distally, abaxially rounded; leaflets mostly single-fold except for the terminal pair and, rarely, the basal pair, regularly arranged, generally rather stiff and coriaceous, linear, close, the apices praemorse, truncate or oblique, glabrous adaxially, abaxially paler with very thin, white, caducous indumentum and conspicuous ramenta along the midrib near the base, midrib prominent, transverse veinlets not visible. Inflorescences infrafoliar, rather short, stiff, spreading, branching to 2 orders basally, to 1 order distally, apparently protandrous; peduncle short, the base bulbous and with 2 clasping wings; prophyll borne just above the base of the peduncle, narrow, ovate, beaked, laterally 2-keeled, entirely enclosing the inflorescence until leaf fall, then splitting longitudinally, bearing abundant, scattered scales; peduncular bract borne just above the prophyll, much shorter than the prophyll, lanceolate, acuminate, apparently not completely sheathing the inflorescence, incompletely encircling the peduncle, scaly as the prophyll; 1 or 2 small, triangular, acuminate, open, peduncular bracts sometimes present; rachis stiffly projecting upward, much longer than the peduncle, bearing spirally arranged small, triangular, acuminate bracts subtending branches and rachillae; rachillae rather flexuous, short, stout, deep crimson at anthesis, glabrous, bearing spirally arranged, very small, low, triangular bracts subtending flower groups, flowers borne in triads for 1/2–3/4 the rachilla length, with solitary or paired staminate flowers distally; floral bracteoles minute. Staminate flowers somewhat asymmetrical, ± fleshy; sepals 3, distinct, imbricate, broadly triangular, keeled, the margins minutely toothed; petals 3, elongate, unequal, briefly connate basally, valvate, tips triangular; stamens 12, filaments short, slender, distinct, anthers ± sagittate at the base, elongate, latrorse; pistillode ± conical, domed, or 3-angled with 3 short slender appendages (?vestigial stamens). Pollen ellipsoidal asymmetric; aperture a distal sulcus; ectexine tectate, psilate-perforate, aperture margin similar; infratectum columellate; longest axis ranging from 40–44 µm [1/1]. Pistillate flowers ± globular; sepals 3, distinct, imbricate, short, broad, keeled; petals 3, distinct, imbricate, the tips minutely valvate at anthesis, about twice as long as sepals; staminodal ring low, membranous, with ca. 9, irregular, triangular lobes; gynoecium unilocular, uniovulate, spherical, stigmas 3, reflexed apically, ovule laterally attached, form unknown. Fruit reddish-brown at maturity, ± spherical with a short, broad, slightly eccentric beak tipped with the stigmatic remains, perianth whorls persistent; epicarp smooth, mesocarp thin with numerous longitudinal, pale fibres, becoming free basally after disintegration of epicarp, endocarp thin, not adhering to the seed. Seed globose, basally and laterally attached with a ± circular, basal, slender, lateral hilum running ± the length of the seed, endosperm deeply ruminate; embryo basal. Germination and eophyll not recorded. Cytology: 2n = 32.

Diagnostic Description

Moderate solitary pinnate-leaved palm from rain forest in Sri Lanka, with conspicuous crownshaft, praemorse leaflets and asymmetrical staminate flowers with 12 stamens; the seed is deeply ruminate.


Fruit (Essig andYoung 1979).


On cliffs, rocks and steep slopes in humid rain forest at altitudes of 300–1600 m.


One species in Sri Lanka.


Seed is rarely used as asubstitute for betel.

Common Names


Distribution Map

  • Native distribution
Found in
  • Asia-Tropical Indian Subcontinent Sri Lanka


  • 1 J. Dransfield & N. Uhl & C. Asmussen & W.J. Baker & M. Harley & C. Lewis, Genera Palmarum. The evolution and classification of palms. 2008
  • 2 Govaerts, R. & Dransfield, J. (2005). World Checklist of Palms: 1-223. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

 Information From

Palmweb - Palms of the World Online
Palmweb 2011. Palmweb: Palms of the World Online. Published on the internet http://www.palmweb.org. Accessed on 21/04/2013
  • A Content licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License
  • B http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0
eMonocot. (2010, 1st November). Retrieved Wednesday, 8th February, 2012, from http://e-monocot.org.
  • C Content licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License
World Checklist of Selected Plant Families
WCSP 2014. 'World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. Facilitated by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet; http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/ Retrieved 2011 onwards
  • D See http://kew.org/about-kew/website-information/legal-notices/index.htm You may use data on these Terms and Conditions and on further condition that: The data is not used for commercial purposes; You may copy and retain data solely for scholarly, educational or research purposes; You may not publish our data, except for small extracts provided for illustrative purposes and duly acknowledged; You acknowledge the source of the data by the words "With the permission of the Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew" in a position which is reasonably prominent in view of your use of the data; Any other use of data or any other content from this website may only be made with our prior written agreement.