Jasarum G.S.Bunting
  • Acta Bot. Venez. 10: 264 (1975 publ. 1977) 

Notes: Distribution: N. South America

General Description

HABIT : evergreen aquatic herbs, stem thick, hypogeal, upright, annulate, terete, brown outside, white inside, usually unbranched, rarely branched, roots thick, somewhat spongy. LEAVES : 6-12, dark green in all parts except whitish hypogeal lower part of petiole. PETIOLE : sheath long, fleshy. BLADE : linear, somewhat bullate, acute to cuspidate, cuneate at base, midrib pronounced; primary lateral veins pinnate, numerous, 35-60 per side, joined into submarginal collective vein, marginal vein also present, higher order venation reticulate. INFLORESCENCE : solitary, held above water level. PEDUNCLE : much longer than petiole. SPATHE : erect, constricted between tube and blade, tube convolute, persistent, blade long-acuminate, never reflexed, marcescent after anthesis and later deciduous, bronze-green outside, cream-coloured inside. SPADIX : shorter than spathe, subcylindric, basal half of female zone adnate to spathe, separated from male by zone of sterile flowers, male zone fertile to apex. FLOWERS : unisexual, perigone absent. MALE FLOWER : 3-4-androus, stamens connate into synandrium, synandrium truncate, irregularly 4-6-angled, thecae 6-8, lateral, elongate, dehiscing by apical pore. POLLEN : ellipsoid, medium-sized (mean 44 µm.), exine foveolate-reticulate. FEMALE FLOWER : ovary cylindric, 1-locular, ovules (1-)2-3(-4), anatropous, funicle distinct, placenta basal, stylar region broader than ovary, stigma discoid-hemispheric. BERRY : subovoid, tightly packed, dull maroon-green apically, stigma remains persistent, pericarp fleshy, usually 1-seeded, sometimes 2-seeded. SEED : large, obovoid, compressed when paired, testa smooth, embryo globular, large, green, plumule well-developed, raphe prominent, endosperm nearly absent.

Diagnostic Description

Submerged evergreen aquatic with thick, upright, underground stem; leaf blade linear, somewhat bullate, fine venation reticulate; inflorescence solitary, held above water; spathe erect, constricted between tube and blade; spadix lacking appendix, male and female zones separated by zone of sterile flowers; flowers unisexual, perigone absent; male flower a truncate synandrium.


Tropical uplands; submerged aquatic in oligotrophic (blackwater) streams.


N. South America.

Distribution Map

  • Native distribution
Found in
  • Southern America Northern South America Guyana
  • Venezuela


  • 1 Govaerts, R. & Frodin, D.G. (2002). World Checklist and Bibliography of Araceae (and Acoraceae): 1-560. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • 2 Gardens, K.""Royal Bot World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. (2008).
  • 3 Mayo, S.J., Bogner, J. & Boyce, P.C. The Genera of Araceae. (Royal Botanic Gardens Kew: 1997).

 Information From

CATE Araceae
Haigh, A., Clark, B., Reynolds, L., Mayo, S.J., Croat, T.B., Lay, L., Boyce, P.C., Mora, M., Bogner, J., Sellaro, M., Wong, S.Y., Kostelac, C., Grayum, M.H., Keating, R.C., Ruckert, G., Naylor, M.F. and Hay, A., CATE Araceae, 14 Dec 2011 . 17 Dec 2011.
  • A All Rights Reserved
eMonocot. (2010, 1st November). Retrieved Wednesday, 8th February, 2012, from http://e-monocot.org.
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World Checklist of Selected Plant Families
WCSP 2014. 'World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. Facilitated by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet; http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/ Retrieved 2011 onwards
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