Hyophorbe Gaertn.
  • Fruct. Sem. Pl. 2: 186 (1791) 


Notes: Distribution: Mascarenes

General Description

Solitary, moderate, unarmed, pleonanthic, monoecious palms. Stem in some species variously swollen, of ± uniform diameter in others, ringed with leaf scars, ± striate, grey. Leaves pinnate, neatly abscising; sheaths forming a prominent crownshaft; petiole short, robust, channelled adaxially, rounded abaxially; rachis flat adaxially, rounded abaxially; leaflets acute to acuminate, single-fold, stiff, midrib prominent with 0–2(–3) evident veins on each side, ramenta prominent on the midrib beneath. Inflorescences infrafoliar, solitary, branched to 3–4 orders, horn-shaped and erect in bud, becoming ± horizontal, protandrous; peduncle stout, elongate; prophyll very short, tubular, caducous, opening at the apex; peduncular bracts 5(4–9), caducous, progressively opening apically, rachis prominent, slightly longer than the peduncle, first-order branches spirally arranged, divaricate, each with a short basal bare part; rachillae slender, elongate, pendulous at first, becoming divaricate; bracts subtending branches and rachillae not evident at anthesis. Flowers orange, yellowish, or white at anthesis, sometimes fragrant, borne in acervuli of a basal pistillate and 3–7 distal staminate, bracts subtending the acervuli and bracteoles subtending the flowers not evident at anthesis. Staminate flowers symmetrical or somewhat asymmetrical in bud; sepals 3, distinct, imbricate or basally connate; petals 3, valvate, briefly connate basally; stamens 6, filaments connate basally and adnate to the corolla or extending beyond the adnation in a tube, distally free, subulate, erect, anthers dorsifixed at or above the middle, bifid basally for 1/2 their length or more, emarginate or briefly bifid apically, latrorse; pistillode conic-ovoid and shorter than the stamens or sometimes minute, 3-lobed. Pollen ellipsoidal, asymmetric, infrequently oblate triangular; aperture a distal sulcus, infrequently a trichotomosulcus; ectexine tectate, scabrate-perforate, aperture margin similar; narrow infratectum columellate; longest axis ranging from 38–58 µm; post-meiotic tetrads usually tetrahedral, occasional tetragonal or, rarely, rhomboidal [4/5]. Pistillate flowers symmetrical, ovoid; sepals 3, distinct and imbricate, or connate basally in a cupule, the lobes then slightly imbricate; petals 3, valvate or slightly imbricate, briefly connate basally; staminodes connate basally in a 6-lobed cupule, sometimes with minute abortive anthers; gynoecium trilocular, triovulate, with 3 recurved, minutely papillate stigmas at anthesis, ovary with septal nectary, ovules laterally attached, hemianatropous, arillate in Hyophorbe verschaffeltii. Fruit ellipsoidal to globose or obpyriform, orange to black, red, or brown, normally 1-seeded, with basal stigmatic remains, perianth persistent, thickened; epicarp smooth or drying somewhat roughened or minutely warty, mesocarp thin, fleshy, with numerous reddish tannin cells and flat fibres of various widths in more than one layer, endocarp thin. Seed ovoid to ellipsoidal or globose, the hilum small, basal, vasculature of few simple or little-branched strands radiating distally and laterally from the hilum, endosperm homogeneous; embryo lateral to apical. Germination adjacent-ligular; eophyll bifid or rarely pinnate. Cytology: 2n = 32.

Diagnostic Description

Moderate single-stemmed pinnate-leaved palms with conspicuous crownshafts and often bottle-shaped trunks, from the Mascarene Islands; inflorescence is horn-like in bud and has many tubular bracts and flowers borne in acervuli.

Morphology

Leaves and floral (Uhl 1978b, 1978c). Developmental studies have shown that the acervulus is an adnate cincinnus (Uhl and Moore 1978). Root (Seubert 1998a, 1998b).

Biology

These handsome palms once covered the mountains and valleys of the Mascarene Islands. All species are now nearly extinct in the wild state but formerly were apparently palms of the forest to ca. 700 m altitude or perhaps of the coastal savannah (Hyophorbe lagenicaulis). The last is now restricted to a few individuals on the exposed rock of Round Island; the others occur on volcanic soils or on both volcanic soils and calcarenite limestones (H. verschaffeltii). Only a single tree of H. amaricaulis now remains, growing in the botanic garden at Curepipe, Mauritius, and relatively few individuals of the other four species can be found (Moore 1978a).

Distribution

Five species endemic to the Mascarene Islands: one each on Rodrigues and Reunion, and three on Mauritius and Round Island.

Uses

These are important ornamentals, often commanding high prices in the horticultural trade. Some species apparently have poisonous cabbage, whereas the cabbage of others (e.g., H. amaricaulis) was eaten in the past despite being very bitter.

Common Names

Bottle palms, spindle palm (Hyophorbe verschaffeltii).

Distribution Map

 
  • Native distribution
Found in
  • Africa Western Indian Ocean Mauritius
  • Rodrigues
  • Réunion

  Bibliography

  • 1 J. Dransfield & N. Uhl & C. Asmussen & W.J. Baker & M. Harley & C. Lewis, Genera Palmarum. The evolution and classification of palms. 2008
  • 2 Govaerts, R. & Dransfield, J. (2005). World Checklist of Palms: 1-223. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

 Information From

Palmweb - Palms of the World Online
http://www.palmweb.org
Palmweb 2011. Palmweb: Palms of the World Online. Published on the internet http://www.palmweb.org. Accessed on 21/04/2013
  • A Content licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License
  • B http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0
eMonocot
http://e-monocot.org
eMonocot. (2010, 1st November). Retrieved Wednesday, 8th February, 2012, from http://e-monocot.org.
  • C Content licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License
World Checklist of Selected Plant Families
http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
WCSP 2014. 'World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. Facilitated by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet; http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/ Retrieved 2011 onwards
  • D See http://kew.org/about-kew/website-information/legal-notices/index.htm You may use data on these Terms and Conditions and on further condition that: The data is not used for commercial purposes; You may copy and retain data solely for scholarly, educational or research purposes; You may not publish our data, except for small extracts provided for illustrative purposes and duly acknowledged; You acknowledge the source of the data by the words "With the permission of the Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew" in a position which is reasonably prominent in view of your use of the data; Any other use of data or any other content from this website may only be made with our prior written agreement.