Liliaceae Juss.
  • Gen. Pl.: 48 (1789) nom. cons.


This taxon is accepted by eMonocot

General Description

Erect perennial geophytes; bulbs formed of 1 to many scales attached to reduced stem, tunicate or not. Leaves basal or cauline, sometimes petiolate, 1- many, alternate or verticillate, linear to ovate-lanceolate, bases sometimes sheathing, veins parallel. Inflorescence a terminal raceme, sometimes umbel-like, or a single terminal flower, bracts subtending flowers absent or present and leaf-like. Flowers hermaphrodite, actinomorphic or occasionally weakly zygomorphic. Perianth segments 6 in 2 whorls, free to base, usually brightly coloured, often with contrasting basal nectaries. Stamens in 2 series of 3; anthers dehiscing by longitudinal slits. Ovary superior, trilocular, with numerous ovules per locule; style solitary, erect, short to long; stigma capitate to 3-lobed. Fruit a loculicidal capsule with numerous seeds. Seeds flattened, discoid to ellipsoidal.

Notes: As recently circumscribed (e.g. Dahlgren, Clifford & Yeo, Families of the Monocots: 233 (1985)), Liliaceae is a homogenous family of mostly spring-flowering temperate bulbous plants.

Herbs, mostly perennial, or rarely soft-wooded shrubs; roots from a rhizome, corm or bulb, or tuberous; stem erect or climbing, leafy or scapose. Flowers bisexual or rarely unisexual, actinomorphic or slightly zygomorphic, sometimes large and showy, never in umbels. Perianth mostly corolla-like, with or without a tube; segments usually 6, rarely 4 or more, in 2 similar series, imbricate or the outer valvate. Stamens usually 6, hypogynous or adnate to and always opposite to the perianth segments; filaments usually free; anthers 2-celled, usually opening by a slit lengthwise. Ovary superior, mostly 3-locular with axile placentas, or rarely 1-locular with parietal placentas; style entire or divided, rarely styles free. Ovules usually numerous and mostly 2-seriate in each loculus. Fruit a capsule or berry. Seeds with copious endosperm.

Bulbiferous or rhizomatous perennials. Aerial stem erect, rarely subterranean, simple or branching. Vernation convolutive to curved or flat. Foliage leaves alternate, or seemingly opposite or verticillate, sometimes crowded at basis of aerial stem, filiform to oval, apically obtuse to long caudateacuminate, subsessile or sessile to amplexicaul, rarely perfoliate, often parallel-veined, sometimes reticulate-veined, sometimes dark-spotted. Inflorescence terminal or axillary, often with bracts, usually a raceme, or umbelliform, often 1-flowered. Flowers bisexual, hypogynous, usually actinomorphic, erect or nodding, often showy. Perianth often infundibular, sometimes tubular, campanulate or cupular, sometimes horizontally patent or recurved. Tepals 3 + 3, free, the whorls often similar but rarely highly different, variable in color, often with patterns of striation, spotting, flecking or checkering, often nectariferous. Stamens 3 + 3, rarely 3 + 0 (Scoliopus), free, inserted at tepal base. Filaments free, often filiform, sometimes flattened, rarely cylindrically swollen with an aciculus at apex, often glabrous, sometimes hairy. Anthers linear to globose, dorsifixed versatile, pseudobasifixed or basifixed, extrorse or latrorse. Carpels 3; Ovary ellipsoid, more rarely cylindric or ovalglobose, (1-2-) 3 locular; lacking septal nectaries, with several to numerous anatropous bitegmic ovules. Fruit a loculicidal or septicidal capsule or a berry. Seeds brown or pale, globose, oblong, irregular or flattened, often with an elaiosome. Endosperm lacking starch.

Ecology

The members of the Lilioideae grow mostly on the forest floor, at forest margins, in grassland or alpine meadows, also on marshy ground, in sand dunes or of open vegetation types. Gagea, Tulipa, and several species of Erythronium are so-called spring geophytes.

Distribution

A family comprising 17 genera , distributed in subtropical to arctic zones of the Northern Hemisphere, abundant in temperate Eurasia and in western N America.

  Bibliography

  • 1 John Grimshaw, D. Phil (2005) Liliaceae. Flora of Tropical East Africa
  • 2 F.n. Hepper (1968) Liliaceae. Flora of West Tropical Africa 3(1)
  • 3 Juss.(1789). Gen. Pl.
  • 4 de Jussieu, A.L. Original publication of Liliaceae. (1789).
  • 5 Kubitzki, K., Huber, H., Rudall, P.J., Stevens, P.S. & Stuetzel, T. Flowering plants. Monocotyledons: Lilianae (except Orchidaceae). Families and genera of vascular plants viii + 478 (1998).
  • 6 Tamura, M.N. Calochortaceae. Flowering Plants. Monocotyledons: Lilianae (excluding Orchidaceae) 164-172 (1998).
  • 7 Tamura, M.N. Liliaceae. Flowering Plants. Monocotyledons: Lilianae (excluding Orchidaceae) 343-353 (1998).
  • 8Contu, S. & Tamura, M.N. Liliaceae in eMonocot. (2014).at

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